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Aquatic Macrophytes

The ECN protocol for aquatic macrophytes (FMA)
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FMA

Protocol file

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Site types that use this protocol

Macrophytes are an important component of the aquatic ecosystem and broad changes in the abundance of individual species and community composition provide valuable information on how and why an ecosystem might be changing.  Macrophytes are also becoming increasingly valued as a means of indirectly monitoring water quality as, for instance, eutrophication can produce a progressive change in species composition and a loss of species diversity.

Species presence, abundance and distribution are recorded annually for rivers, every 2 years for lakes.

Our field activities

DECEMBER

During the winter months we make fewer measurements but there are still weekly visits to sites to check equipment and take water samples.

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Winter fieldwork, Cairngorms
[Photo © CEH]